Baliospermum montanum

 بید انجیر خطائی
دوسوپچاس گرام سے کم آرڈر بُک نہیں ہو گا 250 گرام سے لے کر 40 کلو تک آرڈر دے سکتے ہیں پاکستان میں ڈلیوری ایک دن میں اور پوری دنیا میں کہیں بھی ڈلیوری 10 دن میں

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Persian name – Bedanjire khatai
Arabic name – Habbussalantinebarri
Latin name – Baliospermum montanum
English name – Red physic nut, Wild castor, Wild croton
Hindi name – Danti, Hakum, Hakun
Bengali name – Danti, Hakun
Gujarati name – Dantimul, Jamalgota
Marathi name – Danti
Telugu name – Ettadungida, Kanakapata
Tamil name – Kattamaraku, Niradimutta
Malayalam name – Dantika, Katalavanakku, Nagadanti
Oriya name – Donti
Burma name – Natcho



Product Description

Infra KingdomSTREPTOPHYTA  (land plants)
Super OrderROSANAE

The root is acrid, anodyne, anthelmintic, antiinflammatory, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, pungent, purgative, thermogenic and tonic. It is useful in oedema, flatulence, constipation, jaundice, haemorrhoids, skin diseases, strangury, wounds, splenomegaly, anaemia, leucoderma, fever and vitiated conditions of vata.

This herb has no contraindications.

Habitat : This species in globally distributed in Indo-Malesia. Within India, it is distributed throughout from Kashmir eastwards to Meghalaya, up to an elevation of 1000 m. and southwards into Peninsular India, ascending to an altitude of 1800 m. in the Western Ghats.

Description:A perennial and woody undershrub grows up to 1.5 meters in height. Leaves simple, sinuate-toothed, upper ones small, lower ones are large, flowers are numerous, in axillary recemes with male flowers above and female below. Fruits capsule, 12 mm long, obovoid, seeds ellipsoid and smooth.

Medicinal Uses:
Plant pacifies vitiated vata, dropsy, constipation, flatulence, jaundice, hemorrhoids, skin diseases, calculi, wounds, splenomeg

The root, leaves, seed and seed oil is used in the form of powder, seed and oil to treat piles, anaemia, jaundice, skin diseases, cyst, as purgative, wound and conjunctivitis.Piles(arasa):Leaves of trivrt(ipomoea turpethum), danti(Baliospermum montanum), cangeri(oxalis corniculata) and citraka(Plumbago indica) fried in oil and ghee (mixed) and added with fatty layer of curd should be given as vegetable (10-15 gms) (CS.Ci.14.122).Skin diseases (Kustha)Danti (Baliospermum montanum), trivrt (ipomoea turpethum)and brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) powder together should be taken with honey and ghee. It is beneficial for skin diseases, diabetes and numbness (10-15 gms) (AH.Ci.19.34)

The seeds of Baliospermum montanum are described as drastic. Like croton seeds they are boiled in milk before use. The root of the plant is considered cathartic. Both are much used in diseases where purgatives are indicated. The following are a few examples of prescriptions containing these medicines.

Naracha rasa.1 Take of mercury, borax and black pepper, one part each, sulphur, ginger and long pepper two parts each, seeds of Baliospermum montanum nine parts; powder the ingredients and make into two-grain pills with water. These are given in constipation and tympanites.

Danti haritaki.2 Take twenty-five large chebulic myrobalans and enclose them in a piece of cloth; then take of the roots of Baliospermum montanum and Ipomosa Turpethum (trivrit), each two hundred tolas, water sixty-four seers, boil them together till the water is reduced to eight seers. Strain the decoction, take out the chebulic myrobalans and fry them in thirty-two tolas of sesa-mum oil. To the strained decoction add two hundred tolas of old treacle; then boil till reduced to the proper consistence for a confection. Now add to the mass the following substances, namely powdered root of Ipomcea Turpethum (trivrit) thirty-two tol?s, long pepper and ginger, each eight tolas, and stir them well; when cool add thirty-two tolas of honey, cinnamon, cardamom, leaves called tejapatra, and the flowers of Mesua ferrea (nagakesara) each eight tolas, and prepare a confection. The chebulic myrobalans should be kept imbedded in the medicine. Two tolas of the confection and one of the chebulic myrobalans are to be taken every morning.

Gud  shtaka.1 Take of danti, triwit and plumbago roots, black pepper, long pepper, ginger and long pepper root, equal parts in fine powder; treacle, equal in weight to all the other ingredients and mix. Dose, about a tola every morning in flatulence and retained secretions, anasarca, jaundice, etc.

Threat Status Vulnerable / Regional
: Used In Ayurveda, Folk, Tibetian, Unani and Sidha

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Ayurvedic information

Danti – Baliospermum montanum



Baliospermum montanum is an important medicinal plant, found in southern-western ghats of india. It is commonly known as danti. The plant is a stout monoecious under shrub with many shoots from the base. The various parts of the plant like roots, leaves and seeds are used traditionally for the treatment of various ailments in Ayurveda, roots are used to cure jaundice, leucoderma, skin diseases, wound and as an anthelmintic, leaves are found to be useful in asthma, bronchitis and in treating abdominal tumor, seeds are used as purgative and gastric complaints. Decoction of stem is used to get relief from toothache. The literature revealed the presence of number of chemical constituents like Glycoterpenoids, steroids, Flavonoids etc… the solvents and aqueous extract of only roots have been studied and found to posses Anticancer, Antimicrobial, free radical scavenging, immune-modulatory, hepato protective an anthelmintic.

  • Sanskrit name- Danti
  • Latin name- Baliospermum montanum
  • Family- Euphorbiaceae
  • Kula- Eranda Kula
  • Gana- According to Charaka- Virechaniya, Mulini
    • o According to sushruta- adhobhaga hara, syamadi

Euphorbiaceae family

Herbs, shurbs or small trees of various habit with milky juice, stem slender and leafy or thick and fleshy and sometimes leafless or nearly so. Leaves opposite or less commonly alternate.  Flowers monoecious, combined in an inflorescence of many male florets surrounding a solitary female, arranged in a common 4-5 lobed perianth. Like involucer with thick glands and the mouth, each gland often bearing a petaloid spreading white or colored limb. Male flowers a stalked stamens without floral envelope. Female flowers, ovary 3 celled on an ultimately excerted stalk in the centre of the involucer; ovule solitary in each cell, style 3 free or connate. Fruit is capsule of 3-2 valved cocci, spreading elastically from a persistent axis and dehiscing ventrally or both ventrally and dorsally. Seeds albuminous, cotyledons broad, flat. The flower- heads in the genus have all the appearance of a single 2 sexual flowers especially when the involucer bears petal like appendages. Species 750 cheifly subtropical and warm temperature.


  • v In Vedic literature no herbs is described in the name of danti.
  • v It is considered as one among the best Virechaka dravya.
  • v Chitra of bhedaniya group is considered as danti by cakrapani.
  • v According to Charaka:-
  • Charaka considered danti as in virechaniya gana. The root only indicated for the Virechana.
  • He quoted it as the example of prabhava dravya. Aashukari, Vyavayi, Vikasi are the prabhava of danti.
  • v According to Susruta, the danti comes under the adhobhaga hara and shyamadi gana.
  • v In Sharangadara Samhita, were quoted the reference of preparations, Kangayana gudika in gudika preporation and Dantyadi lepa.
  • v In Sahasra yoga explained the yoga’s of Dantitrivrit Kashayam, dantibeejati gudika, dantyarishta etc…
  • v In Ashtanga hrudaya one preparation mentioned for Kushta roga.
  • v Trough out the literature mostly danti and dravanti are described together.




  • Danti

It will be cures the diseases like Arsha, Kushta etc…

  • Udhumbaraparni

Its leaves resembles the shape of udhumbara(F.glomerata)

  • Earandaphala

Its seeds are similar to those of earanda or its seeds acts as purgative  just like earanda.

  • Mukulaka

It makes the skin appear beautiful again as it treats al skin diseases effectively.

  • Sheeghra

Strong purgative or acts quickly.

  • Virechani

Its root is the best virechaka dravya.


  • Kingdom     – Plantae

(Unranked) – Angiosperms

(Unranked) –  Eudicots

(Unranked) –  Rosids

  • Order – Malpighials
  • Family –Euphorbiaceae
  • Sub.Family –Crotonoideae
  • Tribe –Codiaeae
  • Genus         –Baliospermum Blume
  • Species  –Baliospermum montanum


  • Hindi –Danti, Hakum, Hakun
  • Bengal – Danti, Hakum, Hakun
  • Gujerat – Dantimul, Jamalgota
  • Marathi – Danti
  • Telugu – Ettadundiga, Kanakapata
  • Tamil – Kattamaraku, Niradimutta
  • Malayalam – Dantika, Katalavanakku, Nagadanti, Nirattimutta
  • Oriya – Donti
  • Lepcha – Poguntig
  • Canarese – Danti, Katuharalu
  • North-Western Provinces – Janglijamalgota
  • Burma – Natcho
  • Persia – Bedanjirekhatai
  • Arabic – Habbussalatinebarri


The deciduous and semi-evergreen forest all over most of India up to 1000 m altitude in Himalayas and 1800 m in the South Western Ghats.


A leafy stout usually monoecious under shrub 0.9-1.8 m height, with herbaceous branches from the root, glabrous except the young shoots and sometimes the leaves beneath.


Leaves sinuate-toothed, the upper small lanceolate, penninerved, the lower large, reaching 15-30 cm long and often as broad, ovate, often palmately 3-5 lobed, base rounded or cuneate, 2-glandular, petioles 5-15 cm long, stipules of 2 glands.


Flowers in numerous axillary racemosa or contracted panicles, all male or with a few female below.

Male flowers:- Calyx globose, 2.5 mm long, 4-5 partite, glabrous or slightly pubescent, segments sub-orbicular, concave imbricate, membranous, finely mottled disc of 6 glands. Stamens about 20.

Female flower:- Sepals ovate-lanceolate, pubescent, not accrescent in fruit. Disk 2.5mm diameter, thin entire. Ovary hairy, stylesabout 1.5mm long, thick, 2-partite, dull red the stigmatic surface is smooth, not fimbricate capsule 8-13 mm long, obovoid, usually hairy of thre valved crustaceous cocci.


Seeds 8 by 5 mm. ellipsoid, quite smooth, mottled.


Danti has been explored phytochemicaly by various researches and found to possess number of chemical constituents. The phyto-chemical studies on the root of B.montanum reveled presence of five phorbol esters, viz. Montanin(C32H48O8), Baliospermin, 12-dehydroxyphrobol-13-palmitate, 12-deoxy-16-dehydroxyphrobol-13-palmitate, and 12-deoxy-5β-hyroxyphrobol-13-myristate. A preliminary phyto-chemical study on the roots showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, sterols, and absence of alkaloids, saponins and terpenoids.

Studies based on seeds reported the presence of glycosides and terponids. A non-vicinal dihydroxy mono-saturated acid was isolated from the seed oil and characterized as 11,13-dihydroxy tetra costans-9-enoic acid designated as axillarenic acid.

The leaves showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids and absence of alkaloids and saponins in the leaves of the plant. The flavonoids are absent in the stem and root. The thin layer chromatography(T.L.C) shows six spots, indicate there are six different flavonoids present in the drug. Out of these one, corresponds to rat input as a reference substance. Triterpence are found to be present in the root, stem and leaf.




Young stem is green while old one is greenish brown to brown. Surface is glabrous having small round or oval lenticles. Nodes are very close at the base but quite apart towards the apex. Young stem is spirally twisted and slightly angular. Fracture is fibrous except in pith which covers 1/2- 2/3 of the diameter and is many times hollow. The drug has no specific odour and taste is slightly astringent.


Leaves are thin penninerved, glabrous  except in some, lower is pubescent, Apex is acute. Upper young leaves are small lanceolate and serrate, while lower one is reach upto 15 to 30 cm length and 10 to 20 cm in bridth. They are oblong lanceolate sinuate toothed. Base is rounded. Two glandular petiole, is 5 to 10 cm long, hairy and has groove on the upper surface.


Closely resembles the root appearance and not thicker than root. Surface is rough, having distinct nodes and buds in the axil of the scale leaf. Many rootlets are coming out from the surface. Transversely smoothed surface shows distinct but small pith in the centre. Cohile most of the tissue is composed of xylem. Bark is very thin. Root surface is longitudinally striated having big transversely elongated lenticels. Central part is composed of solid core of xylem.


Matured stem

In the matured stem, cork either suberized, or lignified consist of 4 to 10 layers. Epidermis is still persistent on the old stem above the cork except at lenticles, where the epidermis ruptures. Outer cortex is 3- 4 layered cholenchymatous, the cells are flattened tangentlly. Inner cortex is perichymatous. Very few fibres are present. Nearly Circular or slightly flattened non lignified to lignified striated fibres are present in pericycle either isolated or in a group. Phloem moderately big zone, consist of severe tissues and phloem parenchyma and a few phloem fibres. Medullary rays are generally uniciliated.

Leaf Lamina

One layer of palisade is present below the upper epidermis. Upper epidermal cells are slightly bigger than those of lower epidermis. Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are distributed throughout the mesophyll. They are of two types. Bigger ones are evenly distributed amongst the smaller ones. Bigger clusters measure 34- 45 µ in diameter while smaller ones measure 15- 25µ in diameter. Trichomes are slightly less on upper surface 127-225-315µ long and 17-26-35µ broad at the base. Stomata are of rubaceous typw. Sometimes collapsed or half collapsed stomata are also foundStomatal index of upper epidermis is 1-6, of lower epidermis is 10-13 and palisade ratio is 9 to 11.


Cork is composed of 4-12 layers cells suberized or lignified and measure T-46-76µ. Phelloderm is a big zone consist of outer 2-3 layers of flattened collenchyma followed by a parenchymatous zone. Large number of fiber present similar to those of root stock. Phloem fibers are visible. They resemble those of phelloderm. Xylem consist of fibers, vessels and xylem parenchyma of the same type as those of root stock. Medullary rays are  mono-seriated rarely bi-seriate. Crystals are similar to those from root stock, absent in xylem. Brown pigment is present in the cork but less in phelloderm and phloem. The fibers deposited with pigment found in stem are quiet uncommon in root.

Cell contents

Rosette, prisms and clusters of calcium oxalate crystals are present in the stem clusters of calcium oxalate crystals are present in the leaf and root. Starch grains are present in all parts.



There exist some controversy on the identification of this plant.

Danti/laghudanti- Baliospermum montanum

Dravanti/brhatdanti- Jatropa curcus

Though there is controversy in the botanical source for Dravanti, new problem arose with the consideration of jayapala as dantibeeja. Some scholars have wrongly interpretd the ethmology of this synonym of jayapala as the seed of danti. Actually the synonym dantibeeja indicates that the seed of jayapala resemble that of danti. Hence jayapala may be Croton tiglium as accepted generally.


Root, leaves and seed


  • Bhavaprakasha,kayyadeva, caraka, raja nighandu are mentioned two verities of danti
  1. Danti/Laghudanti
  2. Dravanti/Brhatdant
  • According to cakrapani

Commented on this context that “dantyashyavani, dravanthyasthamrani” ie. Blackish root are for danti and redish color are for dravanti.

  • Bhavaprakasha and caraka are mentioned about nagadanti.


The tropical plant suited almost all soils. It can be cultivated either as pure crop or inter crop. It is propagated vegitatively by cutting. About 15-20 cm long rooted cuttings are using for planting. Pits of size 50 cm cube are to be taken at 3m spacing and filled with dried cowdugs , sand and top soil and formed into a mound. On these mounds, rooted cuttings are to be planted at 2 cuttings/mound. Cutting establish within one month. Weeding is to be carried out at this time. Application of organic manure after every six months is beneficial. Irrigation during summer season is preferable. The plant is not attacked by any serious pests or diseases.


Well grown dark coppery colored roots are collected and honey mixed with powder of long peppar is smeared over it and it is subjected to “puta paka” then it is dried and preserved











  • According to Kayyadeva N. , Bhavaprakasha and Caraka the Danti is a Kapha-pitta hara dravya.
  • According to Nighandu Adarsha, Danwantara N. ,Raja N. and Shsruta the Danti is a Kapha-Vata hara dravya.


According to:-

  • Ø Kayyadeva N. – Agnideepaka, Pachaka, Krumighna.
  • Ø Nighandu Adarsha – Shoolamatwagdoshashamani, Deepana.
  • Ø Raja N. – Shoolamatwagdoshashamani, Agnideepaka Shodhani.
  • Ø Bhavaprakasha – Pachaka, Deepaka, Krumighna.
  • Ø Shalii-grama N. – Kandughna, Kushtaghna, Krumighna.
  • Ø Danwantara N. – Deepana,Shodhana.
  • Ø Caraka – Vikashini.
  • Ø Susruta – Kapha-vata shamaka, Adhobhagahara.


According to:-

  • Ø Kayyadeva N. – Udara roga, Anaha, Shodha, Shoola, Arsha, Vidhaha, Kandu, Kushta, Rakthavikara, Gulma, Pleeha, Ashmari, Krumi.
  • Ø Nghandu Adarsha – Arsha, Vrna, Ashmari, Shalyashodhani.
  • Ø Raja N. – Arsha, Vrna, Ashmari, Shalyshodhani, Kushta.
  • Ø Bhavaprakasha – Ashmari, Shoola, Kandu, Kushta, Krumi.
  • Ø Shalii-grama N. – Kandu, Kushta, Krumi.
  • Ø Danwantara N. – Arsha, Vrna, Ashmari, Shoola.
  • Ø Shusruta – Kumi, Kushta.
  • Ø Caraka – Pandu, Udhara roga, Gulma, arsha, Prameha.


Abhyantara uses:-


Udara roga, Vibandha, Agnimandha, Yakrit vikaras, Arsha, Krumi, Raktavikara, Sarvangha shodha, Svasa.


Ashmari, Vibandhayukta jvara, Sarpa visha.



Bahya uses:-

Shodavedhana(moola), Arsha(moola), Vatavyadhi(beeja taila).

  • Ø According to Caraka
  1. Arshas – Dantyarishta
  2. Pandu – Dantighrta
  3. Jaundice – Juice of Bilva leaves mixed and along with Trikatu should be taken. It alleviates jaundice or danti paste 20mg mixed with double quantity of Jaggeri should be taken with cold water.
  4. Udara roga – In Sannipatika udara, in order to relieve pain, hardness and constipation. Oil of danti-dravanti should be given along with curd-water, soup, meat soup etc…
  5. Arshas – leaves of Trivritt, Danti, Changeri and Chitraka fried in iol and ghee(mixed) and added with fatty layer of curd should be given as vegetable.
  6. As purgative – bifurcating longitudinally a sugar cane, its inner surface should be cover with Danti paste and steamed. By taking it one is evacuated easily.
  • Ø According to Shusruta:-
  1. Pandu – Danti 20gm should be boild in buffalo’s urine sixteen times, remaining to 80 ml. it should be given as purgative.
  2. Udararoga – Danti oil should be given added with rock salt and ajamoda.
  • Ø According to Astanga Hrudaya:-
  1. Jaundice – one should take powder of danti 80 mg with cold water or that of Dravanti mixed with honey along with Triphala decoction.
  2. Kushta – Danti, Trivrit and brahmi powder together should be taken with honey and ghee. It is an excellent remedy for Kushta, Prameha and numbness.
  • Ø According to Vridda madhava:-

Cyst – Danti, chitraka(root bark), latex of Snuhi and arka, Jaggeri, Ballataka nuts, Kasisa, this paste break even stones(let alone a cyst).

  • Ø According to Gadanigraha:-

Conjuctivitis – juice of Betel, Sigru, Karaveera, Sirisha, Danti etc… separately mixed with honey is used as collyrium. It alleviates inflammation of eyes.

  • Ø Poisonous effect :- It cause irritation and drowsiness in excess dose.

Treatment :- milk and ghee administered and Madhura Snigdha substance are to be given.


  • Moola choorna – 1 to 3 gm.
  • Beeja – 125 to 250 mg.
  • Beeja taila – 2 to 5 drops.


  • Anti-cancer activity

All the five prohrobol esters viz. montanin, Baliospermin, 12-deoxy phrobol-13-palmitate, 12-deoxy-16-hydroxy phrobol-13-palmitate and 12-deoxy-5β-hydrophrobol-13-myristate isolated from root of B.montanum were evacuated for their invio anti-leukemic activity and the results of the studies showed significant activity. The result obtained also revealed ED 50 of 0.06-3.4 µ g/me against lymphocytic leukemia p-388 in vitro for all five esters.

  • Anti-microbial activity

The crude enthanolic extract of leaves of B.montanum was evaluated for it anti- microbial potential by disc diffusion method. The various concentration (10,20&40 mg/me) of extract prepared in DMSO were screened using staphylo coccus aureus, pseudomona aeurginosa, Escherichia coli and candida albicans. Amphicilline tri-hydrate (1mg/ml) & fluconazole (0.5 mg/ml) served as reference control for the study. The extract showed significant antibacterial activity but found infective against fungal strain under in the study.



  • Dantyadi Kashayam
  • Dantibeejati gutika
  • Danti-trivrttadi choornam
  • Danti-haritaki leha
  • Dantyarishtam
  • Kumaryasavam
  • Kanghayana gudika


  • Danti-haritaki
  • Danti grdha
  • Dantimooladi lepa
  • Dantyarishta


  • Dantyadi lepa
  • Kangayana gudika


  • Danti grdham
  • Danti-haritaki avaleha
  • Dantyarishtam
  • Dantyasava

Ingredients:- 25 fruits of Abhaya, Danti, Chitraka, Water, Guda, powder of Trivrut, Taila, Kana, Shunti, Honey and Chaturjata.

Processes of drug making:- pack the 25 fruits of abhaya, get 1/35 gm each of the roots danti and chitraka plants and boil them along with the pack of fruits of abhaya in 12 liters of water until it is reduced up to 1/8th. To this decoction add 1165 gm of guda, fruits of abhaya removed from pack and fried along with the sesame oil measuring 190 ml. cook the recipe on mild heat when the recipe is about to get completely cooked. Add to it 190 gm of the powder of trivrut and 46 gm of the each kana and Snuhi. Cook the preparation into a confection. allow the confection to cool down. There after add 190gm honey and 12 gm each powder of the chaturjata herbs to the confection and mix it well.


Ingredient:- danti root, Water, Moorchita cow ghrita, Cow’s milk, Root of Bala, Grapes, Root of Sahadevi, Satavari, Saralakushta, Sariva, Syamalata, juice of Vidharikanta, decoction of Musali and decoction of Kutaja’s bark.

Process of drug making:- take 5 kg measure of danti roots and decot in water measuring 13 liters keep decocting the same until the original quantity is reduced  to 1/4th. Sieve the decoction obtain go-ghrita and cows milk both measuring 750 ml each of prepare kalka of following meterials by pulverizing them with water on a stone slab 187 gm. Each of roots of danti, bala, grapes, roots of sahadevi, satavari, Saralakushta, sariva and shyamalata.

Collect in a big vessel, the above mentioned decoctions, cow’s milk, go-ghrita and kalka along with 3 liters each of juice of vidharikanda,   decoction of musali and decoction of kutaja bark. Cook this preparation methodologically on a slow heat to  obtain medicinal ghritam.

Dosage:- 6-12 gm.


Ingredients:- danti, Chitraka, both the verity of panchamoola herbs, pulp of Triphala herb, jaggeri and water.

Process of drug making:- obtain 50 gm of each of danti, chitraka and both the verities of panchamoola herbs (500 mg of their combined weight) and 150 gm of the pulp of Triphala herb and compound them together. Boil the mix in 13 litera of water till the quantity is reduced up to 1/ this 5 kg of jaggeri should be added and kept in a jar smeared with gritham. Close the mouth with a sarava sealed with mud smeared cloth. Place the pot in a lonely and undisturbed space for 15 days, for the fermentation of sarava, arishta etc… the jar should be smeared with the powder of dhataki or Lodhra flowers.

Dosage:- daily 30 gm.


Application of the kalka of root bark of danti and chitraka, milky latex of Sudha and arka guda, fruit of ballataka, kasisa erodes even a stone(what to speak of granthi).


Taking equal quantity of danti, trivrit, mahashyana, kampillaka, katuka, abhaya, neelini, bhagada powders are mixing and using for Virechana.


In folk medicine

  1. The seeds are purgative and are used externally applied as stimulant and rubifacient. It is considered useful against snake bite.
  2. The paste of root is applied to inflammation, painful lesions and conditions of organs, piles, and similar other ailing conditions.
  3. The oil obtained from the seed is useful as hydrogogue cathartic and applied externally to rheumatism.
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